In this section we will look into what role plasma and serum calprotectin can play in in severe COVID-19.
Plasma and serum calprotectin in severe COVID-19
Severe form of COVID-19 has been characterised among others by, high involvement of neutrophils and hyperinflammatory host response leading to thrombotic complications, organ failure and mortality1,2. Severe COVID-19 has also been described as viral sepsis. Since plasma and serum calprotectin is a neutrophil activation marker, described in bacterial infections and sepsis3-6 it has gained attention in COVID-19 diagnostics. Indeed, several reports the value of calprotectin in early evaluation of disease severity and prediction of severe COVID-197-10.
Elevated calprotectin levels
Calprotectin levels are elevated in COVID-19 patients2,8,9,11,12. Importantly, the levels have been significantly higher in severe COVID-19 cases compared to mild1,2,7-9,12-15 with correlation to:
need for mechanical ventilation8,
intensive care unit (ICU) admission1,9,13-15
multiorgan failure (MOF)15 and
Calprotectin has therefore also been described as a sensitive predictive marker for need of mechanical ventilation8, ICU admission2,9,15, MOF15 and mortality1, 7, 9.
Supporting the management of COVID-19 patients
Calprotectin (plasma and serum) can be used in the risk assessment and prediction of which COVID-19 patients are at risk of developing severe complications, and such help hospitals to better allocate essential resources that are often in limited supply. In conclusion, calprotectin measurements can aid in the triage of COVID-19 patients in times of limited resources, guide treatment decisions and improve overall patient outcome.
Calprotectin is elevated in patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 patients and can be used for:
Differentiation between mild and severe form of the disease
Early identification of patients at the risk to develop multiorgan failure including failure of the respiratory system
Prediction of need for mechanical ventilation, ICU admission, organ failure and mortality
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